The Ten Commandments
A book by Joseph Lewis
Endnotes (converted from Footnotes)
The Fourth Commandment
Endnotes for The Fourth Commandment
4-1 Charles, The Decalogue, P. 110.
4-2 Deuteronomy, Chapter 5, verse 12.
4-3 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 10, p. 587.
4-4 A. D. White, Warfare of Science with Theology, Vol. 1, p. 7.
4-5 Ibid., p. 8.
4-6 Ibid., p. 9.
4-7 Ibid., p. 8.
4-8 A. D. White, op. cit., p. 9.
4-9 Charles, op. cit., p. 123.
4-10 White, op. cit., p. 55.
4-11 New York Times, Feb. 7, 1931.
4-12 Miss Marguerite L. Galois, secretary to the late Sir Hiram Maxim, in the Truth Seeker, Aug. 2, 1913. Although this deals with Sunday as the Sabbath, it is, of course, equally applicable to any other day.
4-13 F. H. Colson, The Week, pp. 18, 19.
4-15 A. D. McLaren, The Christian Sunday, Pioneer Press, London.
4-16 A. D. McLaren, The Christian Sunday.
4-17 Charles, op. cit., p. 117.
4-18 Colson, op. cit., p. 64.
4-20 Idelsohn, Ceremonies of Judaism, pp. 51, 52. For instance, if Thursday, October 2, 1940, was the 5,701st year since the world was created, according to the Hebrew calculation, how is it possible for Saturday to be the seventh day of creation? According to this reckoning, Wednesday of the following week would be the seventh day; and since the reckoning of the New Year according to the Hebrew calendar is constantly changing, this is additional evidence substantiating the claim that if there was a "seventh" day of creation, it has been irretrievably lost. Then again, how silly to assume the accuracy of the Hebrew reckoning of creation, when astronomers, geologists and biologists present indisputable evidence of the existence of the universe and of life on this earth for millions of years. Now that the Jews have abandoned the observance of the Sabbath as the bond between them and their God, they should discontinue the observance of Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur and complete their emancipation from this demoralizing superstition.
4-21 Even today the orthodox Hebrews, not knowing definitely which was the first day of creation, observe two days so as not to make a mistake in failing to observe the proper one. A more accurate method would be to observe every day of the week.
4-22 Only recently the National Assembly of Turkey, discarding the centuries-old tradition, designated Sunday instead of Friday as the Sabbath for the Mohammedans. New York Times, May 29, 1935.
4-23 New York Times, Apr. 13, 1935.
4-24 New York Times, Feb. 9, 1934. It is interesting to note that the witnesses who testified on behalf of the parent did not take the oath on the Bible, but by Allah, holding up two fingers of the right hand and five of the kit. Another interesting point is that a movement has been started recently to include Moslem chaplains in the army.
4-25 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 10, p. 590.
4-26 Hutton Webster, Rest Days: A Study in Early Law and Morality, p. 223.
4-27 Ibid. p. 248.
4-28 Psalms LXXXI: 3.
4-29 Morris Jastrow, "The Day after the Sabbath," American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, 1914, Vol. 30, p. 104.
4-30 Webster, op. cit., p. 138.
4-31 Ibid., p. 194.
4-32 Ibid., p. 258.
4-33 Ibid., p. 222.
4-34 Westermarck, Morals, Vol. 2, p. 288.
4-35 Ibid., p. 284.
4-36 Webster, op. cit., p. 37.
4-37 Ibid., p. 274.
4-38 Webster, op. cit., pp. 125, 127.
4-39 Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris, Vol. 2, p. 133.
4-40 Ibid., pp. 134-139.
4-41 Frazer, op. cit., pp. 140-150.
4-42 Westermarck, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 284, 286.
4-43 Briffault, Mothers, Vol. 2, p. 436.
4-44 Westermarck, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 284, 286.
4-45 Webster, op. cit., p. 37.
4-46 Briffault, op. cit., pp. 573, 578. See also Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 5, pp. 132, 139.
4-47 Frazer, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 142.
4-48 Briffault, op. cit., p. 436.
4-49 Briffault, op. cit., p. 584.
4-50 Ibid., pp. 585, 596.
4-51 Ibid., p. 587.
4-52 Briffault, op. cit., p. 587.
4-53 Ibid., pp. 346, 348, 584.
4-54 Webster, op. cit., p. 135.
4-55 Briffault, op. cit., p. 588.
4-56 Webster, op. cit., p. 135.
4-57 Webster, op. cit., p. 135.
4-58 New York Times, Jan. 9, 1936.
4-59 Briffault, op. cit., p. 587.
4-60 Webster, op. cit., p. 302.
4-61 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 10, p. 589.
4-62 Exodus, Chapter 16, verse 30.
4-63 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 10, p. 490.
4-64 Colson, Week, p. 17. As previously mentioned, the Sabbath was unknown among the Isrælites until their contact with Babylonian culture.
4-66 Ibid., p. 45.
4-67 Colson, op. cit., p. 39.
4-68 Psalms 29: 3-10.
4-69 Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 119.
4-70 The last line of verse 29, quoted above, is the reason why a pious Hebrew traveled only a limited distance from his home on the Sabbath.
4-71 The last two verses quoted above would indicate that the Sabbath was to be observed because their Gad "brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God," and not because be rested after six days of labor. Which again raises the question: Is the Sabbath as old as creation or only as old as Moses?
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4-72 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 10, p. 536.
4-73 For a complete list of acts prohibited on the Sabbath, see Laws and Customs of Isræl Compiled from the Codes. Translated from the Hebrew by Gerald Friedlander Shapiro, Valentine and Co., London, 1929, p. 264.
4-74 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 10, p. 589.
4-75 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 10, pp. 593, 594.
4-76 Ibid., p. 594.
4-77 So intensely can this taboo complex stifle the mind that the following would seem incredible had it not been told to me by the person who observed the practice. On the Sabbath, this person would not tear paper to cleanse himself after performing his physical duty. He would tear paper on Friday and carry it with him, in case of necessity, to be used on Saturday. Was he much removed intellectually from the primitive who refused to answer the call of nature during the eclipse of the moon? Webster, The Rest Days, p. 35.
4-78 Charles, The Decalogue, p. 129.
4-79 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 10, pp. 597.
4-80 Ibid., p. 594.
4-81 Charles, The Decalogue, p. 125.
4-82 Charles, op. cit.
4-83 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Vol 10.
4-84 Josephus, The Antiquities, Vol. 4, p. 254.
4-85 Lea, History of the Inquisition of Spain, Vol. 1, pp. 22-23.
4-86 Ibid., p. 70.
4-87 Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 300.
4-88 Lea, History of the Inquisition of Spain, Vol. 1, p. 111.
4-89 Ibid., pp. 232-235.
4-90 Masse, The Gospel in the Ten Commandments, p. 67.
4-91 Especial significance is also attached to the omission of the word "woman" servant as the proper counterpart of "man" servant. The mention of "maid" servant is of course proper, as it signified a girl not yet physically mature. Mention also of "thy daughter" must be understood to mean an immature girl, as in early Hebrew tribal life a mature girl was sold by her father either as a concubine or in marriage. (Exodus, Chapter 21, verse 7; Genesis, Chapter 29, verse 18.) An unmarried woman in the early society of the Children of Isræl was a disgrace.
4-92 This influence was carried into Christianity, and at a council held at Auxerre at the end of the sixth century, women were forbidden to receive the Eucharist in their naked hands. In various canons women were enjoined not to come near the altar while mass was being celebrated. Some churches during the Middle Ages, in order to avoid any possible pollution from the presence of women, employed eunuchs to supply the soprano tones for the cathedral choirs. (Westermarck, Morals, Vol. 1, p. 666.)
4-93 New York Times, Aug. 7, 1940.
4-94 Eli Eduard Burriss, Taboo, Magic, Spirits, p. 43.
4-95 Ibid., p. 44.
4-96 Wilson D. Wallis, Religion in Primitive Societies, Chap. 17.
4-97 E. Crawley, Mystic Rose, Vol. 1, pp 56-61.
4-98 Ibid., pp. 45-46.
4-99 Ibid., p. 60.
4-100 It must be understood that the highest Biblical authorities admit that the word "unclean" as biblically used is not the ordinary word for things physically foul or unhygienic, but is used in a ritual sense and specifically applies to that which is taboo.
4-101 Trachtenberg. op. cit., p. 185.
4-102 Briffault, The Mothers, Vol. 2, p. 370.
4-103 Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 378.
4-104 Crawley, Mystic Rose, Vol. 1, pp 56-61.
4-105 Briffault, op. cit., 365-371.
4-106 Briffault, op. cit., 375, 381.
4-107 Frazer, Balder the Beautiful, Vol. 1, pp. 86, 87.
4-108 Ibid., p. 89.
4-109 Ibid., p. 83.
4-110 Briffault, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 385, 387.
4-111 The superstition still prevails today that a living plant will wither at the touch of a menstruous woman, and that women during that period should not make food preserves of any kind as they will spoil.
4-112 Briffault, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 384.
4-113 Havelock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Vol. 1, p. 292.
4-114 Briffault, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 441.
4-115 Ibid., pp. 389-390.
4-116 Ellis, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 293.
4-117 Frazer, Balder the Beautiful, Vol. 1, pp. 95, 96.
4-118 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 4, p. 95.
4-119 Exodus, Chapter 4, verse 25.
4-120 Tylor, Early History of Mankind, p. 216.
4-121 Hastings, Encyclopædia, Vol. 3, pp. 661-677.
4-122 Ibid., p. 672.
4-123 Hastings, Encyclopædia, Vol. 3, p. 600.
4-124 Ibid., p. 661.
4-125 Frazer, The Golden Bough, p. 229.
4-126 Today, however, intelligent leaders of enlightened Jews advocate the abolition of the rite of circumcision on the ground that it "no longer is in keeping with the dictates of a religious truth intended for humanity at large," and because of the large number of deaths that follow the mutilation. Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, p. 6; Vol. 10, p. 357; see also William Roseneau, Jewish Ceremonial Institutions and Custom, pp. 130-132. A step in this direction is indicated when proselytes of Judaism do not have to be circumcised. That it has no hygienic value has been admitted by advanced Hebrew students. See David Jacobson, Ph.D., Social Background of the Old Testament. For a condemnation of circumcision on æsthetic, physical and psychological grounds, see Miles Atkinson, Behind the Mask of Medicine, pp. 175-183. Circumcision belongs in the same category of stupidity as knocking out a boy's tooth at puberty in certain savage tribes; binding Chinese women's feet; the Zulu's custom of strapping the skull in infancy to give it an elongated shape, and mutilation of the women's lower lips by the Ubangis. In his book Idiot Man, Charles Ricket scathingly denounces circumcision as a horrible mutilation.
4-127 For the prevalence of female circumcision, see Hastings, Encyclopædia, Vol. 3, pp. 667, 668.
4-128 When a female was circumcised, it was done at puberty, and consists in cutting off the nymphæ, or labia minora, of the vulva, which unite over the clitoris.
4-129 Briffault, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 374.
4-130 Ibid., p. 376.
4-131 Ibid., p. 378.
4-132 Ibid., pp. 373-374.
4-133 Briffault, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 374.
4-134 Briffault, op. cit., p. 375. See also Frazer's Golden Bough: Taboo and Perils of the Soul, pp. 145, 157. The reasons for this taboo will be found in the analysis of the Sixth Commandment.
4-135 Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 10, p. 587; Yad 1. c. xxv. 26; Shab. 128 b; B. M. 32 b; Ex. xxiii.
4-136 Exodus, Chapter 35, verse 3.
4-137 Because of this Commandment, weddings were also forbidden on the Sabbath. Marital indulgences on the Sabbath were regarded as a profanation, and strict laws were passed for its rigorous observance. (Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. 10, p. 593.) In the days of Benjamin Franklin, the Puritans of our own country refused to christen a child born on a Sunday, because a child born on the Sabbath must have been conceived on the Sabbath and no such desecration should be made of the Lord's Day! Benjamin Franklin was born on a Sunday, and the unholy child was a problem to the Sabbatarians of his time. What the world needs today is a few more such desecrations, if they mean the births of more Benjamin Franklins. The fanaticism of the Hebrew Sabbath is matched only by that of the Christian observance.
4-138 White, Warfare of Science with Theology, Vol. 2, p. 63.
4-139 Ibid., p. 108.
4-140 White, Warfare of Science with Theology, Vol. 2, p. 62.
4-141 Briffault, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 373.
4-142 The Voice from Sinai, p. 150.
4-143 W. W. Hardwicke, M.D., Sunday and the Sabbath Question, Watts & Co., London, p. 35.
4-144 New York Post, Mar. 19, 1927.
4-145 Arthur Weigall, The Paganism in Our Christianity, Putnam, New York, pp. 235, 238.
4-146 Hardwicke, op. cit., p. 35.
4-147 Charles, op. cit., p. 146.
4-148 Hardwicke, op. cit., p. 25.
4-149 Ibid., pp. 24, 25.
4-150 Buckle, History of Civilization in England, Vol. 3, pp. 265, 276.
4-151 McLaren, The Christian's Sunday, p. 11.
4-152 Bonner, Christianizing the Heathen, p. 155.
4-153 The Blue Laws of Connecticut, Truth Seeker Co., New York, p. 247.
4-154 The Blue Laws of Connecticut, p. 75.
4-155 Ibid., pp. 6, 7.
4-156 Ibid., p. 71.
4-157 The Blue Laws of Connecticut, pp. 246, 258.
4-158 Alice Morse Earle, The Sabbath in Puritan New England, pp 245, 258.
4-159 Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, Vol. 1, p. 528.
4-160 Herbert Asbury, Up from Methodism, p. 36.
4-161 Ingersoll, Works, Vol 1, p. 380.
4-162 New York Sun.
4-163 New York Evening Journal, Aug. 1, 1927.
4-164 American Freeman, Jan. 15, 1931.
4-165 New York Post, Jan. 17, 1939.
4-166 New York Evening World, Dec. 2, 1927.
4-167 New York Evening Post, May 5, 1927.
4-168 New York Evening Journal, Oct. 5, 1930.
4-169 New York Sun, Dec. 13, 1936.
4-170 New York Times, Aug. 3, 1927.
4-171 These people were found guilty, and some were sentenced to long terms in prison and some were executed for their crimes.
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