History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe
by W. E. H. Lecky

Footnotes to Chapter VI.

1:290. Cod. Theod., lib. xv. tit. 7, l. 8. If the emancipated actress turned out badly, she was to be dragged back to the stage and kept there till she was 'a ridiculous old woman' (ridicula anus).

2:290. Neander, Church History, vol. ii. p. 370. An old Council forbade Christian women marrying actors. The actors, however, at a later period claimed one saint as their patron. This was St. Genetus, who was an actor in the reign of Diocletian. According to the legend, he was acting the part of a Christian in a piece which was designed to turn the new religion to ridicule, when, between the acts, he saw a vision, which converted him, and he accordingly proclaimed his allegiance to Christ upon the stage. The emperor and the audience at first loudly applauded, imagining that this was part of the play; but when they discovered the truth, the actor was put to death.

3:290. Cod. Theod., xvi. 10. 3.

4:290. Lebrun, pp. 117, 118; Cod. Theod., xv. 5. 5.

1:292. Strutt's Sports and Pastimes of the English People. Muratori, Antiq. Ital. Dissert., 29. In Italy the sham fights were carried on on a vast scale and with wooden swords, and were the cause of many deaths. Amusements somewhat similar to those which were once popular in Italy are said to continue in Russia. Storch, Econ. Polit., tom. iii. p. 403.

2:292. Riccoboni, Hist. Du Théâtre Italien depuis l'an 1500 jusqu'à l'an 1660, tom. i. pp. 4-6. The author of this remarkable book (who was known professionally under the name of Lelio) was one of the greatest Italian actors of his time. He travelled much from theatre to theatre, and in the different cities he visited ransacked the public libraries for works hearing upon his history. His book was originally written in French, and is dedicated to Queen Caroline of England.

3:292. He says distinctly, 'Officium histrionum, quod ordinatur ad solatium hominibus exhibendum, non est secundum se illicitum.' It appears certain that when this was written there were no public theatres or dramatic representations, except the religious ones. At the same time, it is impossible to draw a clear line between the public recitation of verses or the exhibitions of mountebanks on the one hand, and the simplest forms of the drama upon the other. Bossuet has cited a passage from St. Thomas's work De Sententiis, in which he speaks of the exhibitions that had 'formerly taken place in the theatres.' At all events, the saint was not very favourable to these 'histriones,' for he speaks of gains that have been acquired 'de turpi causâ, sicut de meretricio et histrionatu.' See on this subject Concina, De Spectaculis, pp. 36-41; Lebrun, Discours sur le Théâtre, pp. 189-194; Bossuet Réflexions sur la Comédie, §§ 22-25.

1:293. 'Joculator.' Bossuet, however, says that the Acts of St. Paphnutius show that this was simply a perambulant flute-player. After all, Bossuet is obliged to make the following admission: 'Après avoir purgé la doctrine de Saint Thomas des excès dont on la chargeoit, il faut avouer avec le respect qui est dû à un si grand homme, qu'il semble s'être un peu éloigné, je ne dirai pas des sentimens dans le fond, mais plutôt des expressions des anciens Pères sur le sujet des divertissemens.' (Réflexions sur la Comédie, § 31.)

2:293. Mackay's Religious Development of the Greeks and Hebrews, vol. ii. pp. 286-297. Besides the drama, it is probable that the gladiatorial spectacles (which are of Etruscan origin) were originally religious. They seem at first to have been celebrated at the graves, and in honour of the dead.

1:294. See Villemain, Moyen Age; Martonne, Piété du Moyen Age; Leroy, Etudes sur les Mystères, p. 41.

2:294. Concina, who published his work, De Spectaculis, in 1752, at the request of Benedict XIV., mentions that the custom still continued in some monasteries; and he devoted a dissertation to proving that monks who laid aside their ecclesiastical dress to personate laymen were guilty of mortal sin.

3:294. See the collections of these by Hone, Jubinal, Jacob, &c.; and the works of Leroy, Suard, and Collier upon their history.

1:295. On which see Malone, Hist. Of the English Stage, pp. 12, 13. Some curious examples of it have been collected by Hone; and also in Strutt's History of the Manners of the People of England, vol. iii. pp. 137-140.

2:295. Some striking instances of this indecency, which indeed is sufficiently manifest in most of the mysteries, are given by Jacob in his Introduction to his collection of Farces. Wherever the seventh commandment was to be broken, the actors disappeared behind a curtain which was hung across a part of the stage; and this is the origin of the French proverbial expression about things that are done 'derriere le rideau.' More than once the Government suppressed the sacred plays in France on account of their evil effects upon morals. In England matters seem to have been if possible worse; and Warton has shown that on at least one occasion in the fifteenth century, Adam and Eve were brought upon the stage strictly in their state of innocence. In the next scene the fig-leaves were introduced. (Malone's History of the English Stage. pp. 15, 16.)

1:296. The Feast of Fools and the Feast of Asses are said to have originated (though probably under other names) in the Greek Church about 990. (Malone's Hist. Of English Stage, p. 9.) La Mère Sotte, in France, originated, or at least became popular, during the quarrel between the King of France and the Pope, at the beginning of the tenth century. (Monteil, Hist. Des Français des Diverses Etats, tom. iii. p. 342, ed. 1853.)

2:296. Bibliografia delle Antiche Rappresentazioni Italiane Sacre e Profane stampate nei Secoli XV. e XVI., dal Colomb de Batines (Firenze, 1852). One of these mysteries, the S. Giovanni e Paolo, was written by Lorenzo de' Medici himself (Roscoe, Lorenzo de' Medici, ch. v.).

1:297. Riccoboni, tom. i. p. 89. One of the most famous of the early harlequins was Cecchino, who is also celebrated for having published at Venice, in 1621, perhaps the first defence of the theatre, He was ennobled by the Emperor of Germany.

2:297. These farces, in the earliest and simplest forms, were called 'contrasti' in Italian, or 'débats' in French. De Batines has made a list of several which were translated from Italian into French; e. g. the discussions between wine and water, between life and death, between man and woman, &c. Italian actors sometimes migrated to France, and in 1577 we find a regular Italian company, called I Gelosi, there.

3:297. As a comic opera, and also, I believe, as a play. The popularity of the farce of Patelin produced Le Nouveau Patelin and Le Testament de Patelin, both of which have been reprinted by Jacob. Hallam says (Hist. Of Lit., vol. i. p. 216) that the farce of Patelin was first printed in 1490. There is extreme uncertainty resting upon the early chronology of the drama; scarcely any two authorities agree upon the subject.

4:297. The term 'morality,' however, was very loosely used. Jacob has reprinted an old play, called La Moralité de l'Aveugle et du Boiteux, which is nothing more than a farce. From the religious plays the personifications passed to the ballets, in which they still sometimes appear. An old French poem describes in rapturous terms the performance of a certain Madame de Brancas, in the character of Geometry, in a ballet on the seven liberal arts, danced before Louis XIV. in 1663.

1:298. Farces appear also to have been the chief form of dramatic literature in Spain in the fifteenth century. See Bouterwek's Hist. Of Spanish Literature. They were followed by eclogues.

2:298. Some remains, however, of the mysteries continue to the present day, especially in the villages of the Tyrol. There is still, too, a great 'passion play,' as it is termed, celebrated every tenth year at the little village of Oberammergau, in Bavaria, near the frontiers of the Tyrol, which, though it is not more than 300 years old, and though it is almost entirely devoid of grotesque scenes, may be on the whole looked upon as a representative of the mediæval plays. It consists of scenes from the Passion (beginning at the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and ending with the appearance to the Magdalene after the Resurrection), between which pictures from the Old Testament (partly wax-work and partly tableaux vivants), typical of the Passion, are displayed. A chorus, like those of the Greek plays, sings hymns concerning the connection between the type and the antitype. When I saw it in 1860, the play lasted for 7¼ hours, and commanded the attention of an immense audience to the close.

1:299. Riccoboni, tom. i. pp. 32, 33. The Calandra is now nearly forgotten, but its author will always be remembered as the subject of two of the noblest of the portraits of Raphael, -- one at Florence, and the other at Madrid.

2:299. Compare Riccoboni, tom. ii. pp. 9, 10; and Sismondi, Hist. De la Littérature du Midi, tom. ii. pp. 188-199. The two pieces seem to have been acted nearly at the same time; but the Sophonisba was not printed for some years afterwards. Ruccellai also wrote a play called Orestes, which, however, was not brought at this time on the stage.

3:299. Roscoe's Lorenzo de' Medici, ch. v.; Hogarth's Memoirs of the Opera, pp. 6-8. Of course, as Hallam has observed, recitative not being yet invented, the music was confined to choruses and songs scattered throughout the piece.

4:299. Riccoboni, tom. i. p. 183.

1:300. See Charles, La Comédie en France au Seizième Siècle (1862). Riccoboni, however, asserts that Molière took the character, and even some of the incidents and speeches, of his Tartuffe from an old Italian play called Doctor Bachetone (tom. i. p. 137).

2:300. Among the Arcadians, for example, music was compulsory, and the one district in which this custom fell into desuetude was said to have sunk far below the surrounding civilisation. There is a singularly curious chapter on the effects ascribed to music among the Greeks, in Burney's History of Music, vol. i. pp. 173-194. The legends of Orpheus charming hell, Arion appeasing the waves, and Amphion moving the stones by music, as well as 'the music of the spheres' of Pythagoras, will occur to every one.

3:300. Called originally 'discantus.' The exact date of its invention is a matter of great controversy. It is said to have been suggested by the varied tones of the organ.

1:301. See Burney's Hist. Of Music; Castil-Blaze, Chapelle Musique des Rois de France; Hogarth's Hist. Of the Opera; Monteil, Hist. Des Français (XVII. Sièle); the notice of Palestrina in Hallam's Hist. Of Literature; and the Essays on Musical Notation, by Vitet and Coussemaker.

1:303. The stage of Orange, which is probably the most perfect Roman theatre in existence, is 66 yards broad and 12 deep. (See Vitet's Essay on the Antiquities of Orange, in his Etudes sur l'Histoire d'Art.) The length of the stage of Herculaneum is greater than that of San Carlo at Naples, but its depth is only a few feet.

1:304. The Spanish theatre very early rose to perfection, and, after 1600, Spanish tragi-comedies soon became dominant, even in Italy. (See Riccoboni's history of the movement; and Bouterwek's Hist. Of Spanish Literature.) In this review I have not entered into an examination of the English theatre, for two reasons: first, because its growth was almost entirely isolated, while the dramatic literatures of Italy, Spain, and France were closely connected; and, secondly, because my present object is to trace the relations of Catholicism and the drama.

2:304. The following was the decision of the doctors of the Sorbonne in 1694: 'Les comédiens, par leur profession comme elle s'exercise, sont en état de péché mortel. -- Dict. Des Cas de Conscience, de Lamer et Fromageau, tom. i. p. 803.

3:304. See an immense mass of evidence of this collected in Desprez de Boissy, Lettres sur les Spectacles (1780); Lebrun, Discours sur la Comédie; Concina, De Spectaculis.

1:305. 'Arcendi [a sacra communione] sunt publice indigni, quales sunt excommunicati, interdicti, manifeste infames ut meretrices, concubinarii, comœdi.' (Quoted by Concina, De Spectaculis, p. 42. See also Lebrun, Discours, p. 34.) Some theologians, in order to reconcile their sentiments with the passage from St, Thomas that I have quoted, said that it was actors of immoral pieces that were excommunicated, but they added that the condition of the theatre was such that all actors fell under the censure. Molière was regarded as peculiarly and preëminently bad. Racine was far from innocuous; and Bossuet distinctly maintained that any piece was immoral which contained a representation of love, however legitimate its character. (See his Réflexions sur la Comédie.)

2:305. 'L'Eglise condamne les comédiens, et croit par-là défendre assez la comédie: la décision en est précise dans les Rituels (Rit. De Paris, pp. 108-114), la pratique en est constante. On prove des sacremens et à la vie et à la mort ceux qui jouent la comédie s'ils ne renoncent à leur art; on les passe à la sainte table comme des pécheurs publics; on les exclut des ordres sacrés comme des personnes infâmes; par une suite infaillible, la sépulture ecclésiastique leur est déniée.' -- Bossuet, Réflexions sur la Comédie, § xi.

1:306. Lebrun relates this with much exultation. Speaking of Molière he says: 'Ce qui est constant, c'est que sa mort est une morale terrible pour tous ses confrères, et pour tous ceux qui ne cherchent qu'à rire -- un peu de terre obtenu par prière, c'est tout ce qu'il a de l'Église, et encore fallut-il bien protester qu'il avoit donné des marques de repentir. Rosimond étant mort subitement en 1691, fut enterré sans clergé, sans lumière, et sans aucune prière, dans un endroit du cimetière de St. Sulpice où l'on met les enfans morts sans baptême.' (Discours sur la Comédie, ed. 1731. p. 259.)

2:306. This marvellous production is given in full by Desprez de Boissy, tom i. pp. 510-512. Its author was named Tronchon.

3:306. Ibid. p. 124.

4:306. The Archbishop of Paris. This refusal was of course comprised in the general rule, that actors as excommunicated persons should be excluded from the sacraments (Desprez de Boissy, tom. i. p. 447). And yet these priests had the audacity to reproach actors with their immorality! The Council of Illiberis, one of the oldest on record, prohibited any Christian woman from marrying an actor. (Lebrun, Discours, p. 157.)

1:307. See the curious Arrêt du Parlement, in Desprez de Boissy, tom. i. pp. 473-481.

2:307. Hogarth, Memoirs of the Opera, p. 28.

3:307. Philip II., however, and Philip IV. banished all actors from Spain (Boissy, Lettres sur les Spectacles, tom. i. pp. 483, 484); and the venerable and miracle-working Father Posadas, at a later period, caused the destruction of the theatre of Cordova (Concina, De Spect. p. 178). On the extent to which actors laboured to win the favour of the Church by religious plays and by staging at the Church festivals, see the indignant remarks of Mariana, De Rege, pp. 406-419.

1:308. Buckle, Hist., vol. i. p. 347, note. In the same way, Lebrun ascribes the earthquakes that desolated ancient Antioch to the passion of the inhabitants for the theatre (Discours, pp. 132, 133). The English bishops, in 1563, attributed the plague to the theatres (Froude's Hist., vol. vii. p. 519).

2:308. See an energetic extract which Concina has prefixed to his book. Some of the cardinals, however, were less severe, and in the first half of the seventeenth century the musical parties of the Cardinal Barberini were very famous. It was probably there, and certainly at Rome, that Milton met Leonora Baroni, who was one of the first of the long line of great Italian opera-singers, and to whom he, with a very unpuritanical gallantry, addressed three Latin poems (Hogarth, Memoirs of the Opera, pp. 17, 18). These carnival dramas excited the great indignation of the Calvinist Dallæus (Concina, pp. 302, 303). The Italians do not seem to have been so violent against the theatre as the French priests, though De Boissy has collected a rather long list of condemnations.

3:308. Desprez de Boissy, tom. ii. pp. 234-236.

1:310. On the decrees of the French Protestants against the theatre, see Lebrun, p. 255. Calvin at Geneva was equally severe, and his policy long after found an enthusiastic defender in Rousseau. In England, one of the most atrocious acts of tyranny of which Charles I. was guilty, was elicited by a book called the Histriomastix, of Prynne, and one of the first effects of the triumph of the Puritans was the suppression of the theatre.

2:310. I have mentioned the way in which Molière, Lulli, and Le Couvreur were treated in France. As a single illustration of the different spirits of Catholicism and Anglicanism, I may mention the fate of their English parallels -- Shakespeare, Lawes and Mrs. Oldfield. No murmur of controversy ever disturbed the grave of Shakespeare, and the great poet of Puritanism sang his requiem. Lawes and Mrs. Oldfield both rest in Westminster Abbey, to which the latter was borne with almost regal pomp.

1:314. Those who directly or indirectly depend upon fixed incomes.

1:315. According to Chevallier (whose book on this subject has been translated and endorsed by Mr. Cobden), the adoption of a gold standard by France is the principal.

2:315. The famous sermon of Bishop Latimer, describing the revolution of prices in England, was preached as early as 1548, only twenty seven years after the conquest of Mexico, and at a time when the great mines of Potosi (which were only discovered in 1545) could scarcely have had any effect upon Europe. The most striking evidence of the perturbation of prices in England in the sixteenth century is given in 'A Compendious or Briefe Examination of Certayne Ordinary Complaints of divers of our Countrymen, by W. S.' [probably William Stafford], 1581. The greater part of this curious pamphlet has been reprinted in the fifth volume of the Pamphleteer (1815).

1:316. Aggravated to a certain extent by the dishonest tampering with the coinage, in which Charles V., like most of the sovereigns of the time, indulged. The chief results of this are, first, that the good coins are driven out of circulation, as men naturally prefer giving the smallest value possible for what they purchase; secondly, nominal prices are raised as the intrinsic value of corns is depreciated; thirdly, all the evils of uncertainty, panic, and suffering inflicted upon creditors and persons with fixed incomes are produced.

1:317. See Blanqui, Hist. D'Economie Politique, tom, i. pp. 271-284, where the whole subject of the political economy of Charles V. is admirably treated.

2:317. The beginning of the trade dates from 1440, in which year some Portuguese merchants, having kidnapped some Moors on the coast of Africa, only consented to ransom them on receiving negroes in exchange. (M'Pherson's Annals of Commerce, vol. i. p. 661.)

1:318. The first writer who undertook the defence of Las Casas was Grégoire, Bishop of Blois, in a paper read before the French Institute in 1804, and the subject was afterwards treated, though in a rather different point of view, in a letter by a Mexican priest named Don Gregorio Funes, and in an essay by Llorente. They are reprinted, together with translations of all the relevant passages from Herrera (the original authority on the subject), in Llorente's edition of the works of Las Casas (1822). The first of these writers attempted to impugn the authority of Herrera, but for this there seems no sufficient reason; nor does it appear that Herrera, or indeed any one else at the time, considered the conduct of Las Casas wrong. The monks of St. Jerome are much more responsible for the introduction of negroes than Las Casas. It is impossible to read the evidence Llorente has collected without feeling that, as a general rule (with a few striking exceptions), the Spanish clergy laboured earnestly to alleviate the condition of the captive Indians, that this was one of their chief reasons in advocating the import of negroes, and that they never contemplated the horrors that soon grew out of the trade. It should be added that the Spanish Dominican Soto was perhaps the first man who unequivocally condemned that trade.

2:318. M'Pherson's Annals of Commerce, vol. ii. p. 638. At a much later period, in 1689, the English made a convention with Spain to supply the West Indies with slaves from Jamaica.

1:319. This was noticed by Bodin in his time. See La République, p. 47 (1577).

1:320. Blanqui, Hist. De l'Econ. Pol., tom. i. p. 277.

1:322. The fullest history of hot drinks I have met with is in a curious and learned book, D'Aussy, Hist. De la Vie Privée des Français (Paris, 1815), tom. iii. pp. 116-129, which I have followed closely. See, too, Pierre Lacroix, Histoire des Anciennes Corporations, p. 76; Pelletier, Le Thé et le Café; Cabanis, Rapports du Physique et du Moral, 8me Mémoire; and, for the English part of the history, M'Pherson's Annals of Commerce, vol. ii. pp. 447-489.

1:323. I do not include among these causes the diminution of Church holidays, for although in some few countries they may have degenerated into an abuse, the number that are compulsory has been grossly exaggerated; and moreover, their good effects in procuring some additional recreation for the working classes appear to me to have much more than counterbalanced any slight injury they may have done to labour. There is some correspondence between Dr. Doyle and Lord Cloncurry on this subject, which is well worthy of attention, in Fitzpatrick's Life of Doyle.

1:324. The difference between town and country in this respect has been fully noticed by Mr. Buckle (Hist. Of Civ., vol. i. pp. 344-847), who ascribes it chiefly to the fact that agriculturists are dependent for their success upon atmospheric changes, which man can neither predict nor control.

1:325. See M'Culloch's Political Economy, and his Introduction to the Wealth of Nations.

1:326. See Blanqui. In England the mercantile system began under the influence of the East India Company, which, in 1600, obtained permission to export the precious metals to the amount of £30,000 per annum, on the condition that within six months of every expedition (except the first) the Company should import an equal sum. Under Henry VIII., and more than once at an earlier period, all exportation of the precious metals had been forbidden. The restrictive laws on this subject were repealed in 1663 (M'Culloch's Introd. Discourse). The two most eminent English defenders of the mercantile system -- Thomas Mun, whose Treasure by Foreign Trade was published in 1664, and Sir Josiah Child, whose New Discourse of Trade was published in 1668 -- both wrote in the interests of the East India Company.

1:327. The earliest writer who very clearly expounded the true nature of money was probably Bishop Berkeley, whose Querist, considering that it was written in 1735, is one of the most remarkable instances of political sagacity of the age; far superior in this respect, I think, to the economical writings of Locke. Berkeley very nearly broke loose from the system of 'the balance of commerce.' The following queries are a curious example of the struggles of an acute reason against this universal error: -- 

'Whether that trade should not be accounted most pernicious, wherein the balance is most against us? and whether this be not the trade of France?' 'Whether the annual trade between Italy and Lyons be not about four millions in favour of the former, and yet whether Lyons be not a gainer by this trade?' 'Whether the general rule of determining the profit of a commerce by its balance doth not, like other rules, admit of exceptions?' 'Whether it would not be a monstrous folly to import nothing but gold and silver, supposing we might do it, from every foreign part to which we trade?' 'Whether he must not be a wrong-headed patriot or politician whose ultimate view was drawing money into a country and keeping it there?, (Querist, 561, 555, 556, 557, 559.)

Berkeley is an example of, perhaps, the rarest form of genius -- that which is equally adapted for political speculation, and for the most subtle and super-sensuous regions of metaphysics.

1:329. Say, Traité d'Economie Politique, liv. i. ch. 2.

1:330. Wealth of Nations, book ii. ch. 5.

1:331. As long as the good land to be cultivated is practically unlimited relatively to the population, no rent is paid. When, however, the best land no longer sufficiently supplies the wants of an increased population, it will still continue to be cultivated; but it will be necessary also to cultivate land of an inferior quality. The cost of the production of a given quantity of the best corn will necessarily be greater when derived from the latter than when derived from the former; but when brought to the market, all corn of the same quality will bear the same price, and that price will be regulated by the cost of production which is greatest (for no one would cultivate the bad land if the sale of its produce did not compensate for his outlay), so that in the sale of corn of the same quality at the same price, the profits of the possessors of the good, will be greater than the profits of the possessors of the bad land. This difference is the origin of rent, which is, therefore, not a primal element of agriculture, and which has not, as Adam Smith supposed, any influence on price.

1:332. The earliest European notice of windmills is, I believe, to be found in a charter of William, Count of Mortain (grandson of William the Conqueror), dated 1105, which has been published by Mabillon. They are supposed to have been brought from Asia Minor. (D'Aussy, La Vie Privée des Français, tom. i. pp. 62, 63.)

1:333. Amongst others, Colbert.

1:335. There are some striking, though now rather ancient, statistics on this point in Babbage On Machines, ch. i. In 1830, the non-cultivators were in Italy as 31 to 100; in France, as 50 to 100; in England, as 200 to 100. During the first thirty years of the century, the population of England increased about fifty-one per cent.; that of the great towns, 123 per cent.

1:338. Even Voltaire said, 'Telle est la condition humaine, que souhaiter la grandeur de son pays c'est souhaiter du mal à ses voisins.... Il est clair qu'un pays ne peut gagner sans qu'un autre perd.' (Dict. Phil., art. Patrie.)

1:341. Written in 1863.

1:343. There is a full description of these in Chevallier's Lettres sur l'Organssation du Travail -- a very able, and, considering that it was written in 1848, a very courageous book.

2:343. The main interest of the poor is that as large a proportion as possible of the national wealth should be converted into capital, or, in other words, diverted from unproductive to productive channels. Wealth in the form of diamonds or gold ornaments, retained only for ostentation, has no effect upon wages. Wealth expended in feasts or pageants does undoubtedly directly benefit those who furnish them, but is of no ultimate good to the community, because the purchased article perishes unproductively by the use. Were the sums expended in these ways devoted to productive sources, they would, after each such employment, be reproduced, and become again available for the purposes of society; and those who now gain their living in supplying what is useless to mankind would betake themselves to the enlarged field of productive enterprise. But this train of reasoning should be corrected by the following considerations: 1st. Wealth is a mean, and not an end, its end being happiness; and therefore mere accumulation, with no further object, is plainly irrational. Some modes of expenditure (such as public amusements), which rank very low indeed when judged by one test, rank very high when judged by the other. The intensity, and the wide diffusion of enjoyment they produce, compensate for their transience. 2d. There is such a thing as immaterial production. Expenditure in the domain of art or science, which adds nothing to the material wealth of the community, may not only produce enjoyment, but may become the source of enjoyment and improvement for all future time. 3d. The great incentive to production is the desire to rise to the higher ranks, and the great attraction of those ranks to the majority of men is the ostentation that accompanies them; so that that expenditure which directly is unproductive may indirectly be highly productive. Besides this, we should consider the effects of sudden outbursts of luxury at different periods of history and its different influences upon morals. So stated, the question of the most advantageous expenditure is extremely complicated, and varies much with different circumstances. As a general rule, however, political economy tends to repress the luxury of ostentation.

1:345. At least till Say, whose Théorie des Débouchés (directed against the notion of a 'universal glut,' which was maintained in France by Sismondi and in England by Malthus) may be regarded as the highest demonstration of the truth. The first writer who intimated the identity of the interests of nations engaged in commerce, was probably Dudley North, in his famous work on commerce, published in 1691.

1:346. The Therapeutes mentioned by Philo (De Vitâ Contemplativâ) were probably pagans; and, indeed, in Asia and Africa the monastic type has always existed, and has assumed forms very similar to that among Christians. The horrible macerations of the Buddhists rival those of any Christian sect, and the antipathy to the fair sex is nearly as great among the pagan as among the Christian anchorites. Some pagan religionists of Siam made it a rule never to keep hens, because those animals are of the female sex. (Bayle, Nouvelles Lettres, lettre xxi.) Some Christians of Syria, with equal wisdom, resolved never to eat the flesh of any female animal. (Ibid.)

1:347. The Carmelites had existed before upon Mount Carmel, and had even traced their origin to the prophet Elijah; but they were transferred to Europe, reorganised, and greatly multiplied in the thirteenth century.

1:348. Montalembert, Moines d'Occident, Introd. pp. 199, 200.

1:351. Among the ancients, the Phœnician colonies, and a few others of less importance, were no doubt commercial; but the immense majority were due either to the love of migration natural to a barbarous people, or to an excess of population, or to a desire when vanquished to escape servitude, or to a fear of invasion, or to the spirit of conquest. The substitution of the industrial for the military colonial system is one of the important changes in history, and on the whole, perhaps, it cannot be better dated than from the Portuguese colonial empire, which Vasco da Gama founded, and Albuquerque consolidated.

1:352. A great political economist, in a work which has now become very rare, says, 'Toute vertu qui n'a pas l'utilité pour objet immédiat me parait futile, ridicule, pareille à cette perfection de Talapoin qui consiste à se tenir sur un seul pied plusieurs années de suite, ou dans quelque autre mortification nuisible à lui-même, inutile aux autres, et que son Dieu même doit regarder en pitié.' (J. B. Say, Olbie, p. 81.)

1:353. Périn, La Richesse dans les Sociétés Chrétiennes.

2:353. Mahomet Effendi. See Bayle, Penates Diverses, § 182.

1:355. As Madame de Stael said, 'La morale fondée sur l'intérêt, si fortement prêchée par les écrivains français du dernier siècle, est dans une connexion intime avec la métaphysique qui attribue toutes nos idées à des sensations' (L'Allemagne). I believe all who are conversant with the history of philosophy will acknowledge this to be profoundly true.

1:356. It is indeed true, that a first principle of the Positive school is the assertion that the limit of human faculties is the study of the successions of phenomena, and that we are therefore incapable of ascertaining their causes; and M. Littré, in his preface to the recent edition of Comte's works, has adduced this principle to show that Positivism is unaffected by arguments against materialism. As a matter of fact, however, the leading Positivists have been avowed materialists; the negation of the existence of metaphysics as a science distinct from physiology, which is one of their cardinal doctrines, implies, or all but implies, materialism; and the tendency of their school has, I think, of late years been steadily to substitute direct negations for scepticism. There are some good remarks on this in a very clear and able little book, called Le Matérialisme Contemporaine, by Paul Janet, a writer on whom (since Saisset died) the defence of Spiritualism in France seems to have mainly devolved.