HOMER W. SMITH
Graphic Rule
MAN
AND HIS
GODS
Graphic Rule
FOREWORD BY ALBERT EINSTEIN

 
 

MAN AND HIS GODS


Graphic Rule
Index

 

AAHMES 1, 53
Aakhu, 24
Aapep, 21
Ab, 24
Abelard, 302, 319
Abraham, 65, 89
Absolute, the, in Plato's philosophy, 155
Abydos, 16, 37ff.
Adam, 117, 236, 245, 424
Adams, George, 343
Adamu, 117
Adonis, 122ff.
Aegospotami, 152
Aeschylus, 142
Afterbirth, 24
Afterlife, Egyptian, 39; Sumerian, 77; Greek, 141; Roman, 169; Christian, 205; Hebrew, 205
Agassiz, Alexander, 374
Agnosticism, 391
Agnus Dei, 276
Agobard, 260
Agriculture, origin of, 13
Aha Menes, 17
Ahriman, 128f., 230
Akhetaten, 57
Akhnaten (Amenhotep IV), 55ff., 90, 113
Akkad, 69f.
Akki, 69
Albertus Magnus, 303, 332
Albigensian Crusade, 254
Alcmaeon, 163
Alexander, Bishop, 222f.
Alexandrian library, destruction of, 163f., 228
Allat, 77
Allen, Grant, 8, 115
Altruism, 422f.
Amen, 14, 29, 60
Amenhotep I, 53; -- II, 53; -- III, 14, 53ff.; -- IV (Akhnaten), 55
Amenism, 63
Amen-Ra, 54ff.
Amos, on righteousness, 112ff.
Amratians, 11f.
Amulets, early Egyptian, 12f.; in the Egyptian tomb, 31
Anaitis, 122
Anaxagoras, 145ff., 163
Anaximander, 143
Anaximenes, 143
Angelology, 306
Angels, Mithraic, 128; Apocryphal, 306; Christian, 306
Anglican church. See Episcopal church
Ani, papyrus of, 42
Animal deities, Egyptian, 21
Animal sacrifices, at grave, 31
Ankhsenamen, 62
Anselm, 301
Antiochus, 120
Antipodes, medieval opposition to, 328
Anubis, 21, 34ff.
Aphrodisia, 126
Aphrodite, 122, 125, 134, 140, 167, 425
Apis, 21ff.
Apollo, 134, 140, 167
Apologetics, Christian, 297
Apsu, 72f.
Aquinas, 217, 273, 278, 303f., 307, 420, 435
Aral, 77
Ares, 135
Ariadne, 137
Aristippus, 420
Aristophanes, 140; The Clouds, 146ff.
Aristotelianism, rebirth of, 318
Aristotle, 100, 161ff., 419
Arius, 222f.
Ark, Noah's, 77, 325; of the Israelites, 97, 105; disappearance of, 116
Armorites, 54ff., 62
Arnold, Abbot of Cteaux, 257
Art, development of Egyptian, 32
Artemis, 124, 167
Aruru, 78
Ashera, 86, 97, 101
Ashtoreth, 102
Ashurbanipal, 70, 78, 325
Asiatic provinces, collapse of Egyptian, 62
Asklepios, 167, 228
Assiut, 11
Assur, 69
Assyria, 63, 69, 91
Astarte, 85, 122ff., 425
Astoreth, 122
Astrology, in Mesopotamia, 74
Astronomy, origin of, in Egypt, 23
Aten, 54ff.
Atenism, 59
Athanasius, 223f.
Atheism, Bradlaugh's definition of, 345
Atheists of 1800-1850, 344ff.
Athens, politics of, 150
Athribis, 37
Atomic theory, of Democritus, 144
Atomism, 403
Attis, 124, 167, 214
Atum, 19f.
Atum-Ra, 21
Augustine, 215, 22I, 238f., 263, 273, 297f., 322ff., 332, 375, 424ff.; and slavery, 164; on Natural Law, 415
Augustus, imperial title, 170
Axioms, mathematical, 406
Azazel, 232
Aztecs, 133

BA'AL, 72
Ba-Bel, 74
Babylon, 65ff.; destruction by Cyrus, 119
Babylonia, 63
Bacon, Francis: The New Atlantis, 430
Bacon, Roger, 318, 353
Badarian culture, 11f.
Baikie, 55
Balfour, Earl, 414, 419, 438; Foundations of Belief, 403
Baptism, Mithraic, 130; by John, 192; and Pelagian heresy, 237; Augustine's emphasis on, 249; infant, 250; of pagans, 251
Bath, reintroduction of the, 381
Bailer, Bruno, 190
Beagle, H.M.S., 357f.
Bekker, Balthasar, 291
Bel-Marduk, 72
Bells, consecrated, 277
Bentham, George, 367
Bentham, Jeremy: Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, 421
Beringer, Johann, 333
Berkeley, Bishop, 404
Bernard of Clairvaux, 302
Berossus, 72, 135
Beth-el, 101
Beth-Ninurta, 58
Bible, translation into English, 319. See also Old Testament and New Testament
Black Mass, the, 274
Blood, purification by, in worship of Attis, 125; in worship of Dionysus, 127; in Mithraism, 130. See also Sacrament
Blood sacrifice, in Egypt, 15; among Aztecs, 133
Bloomer, Amelia Jenks, 382
Bodin, Jean, 292
Boetius, 300
Boghaz-Keui, 78
Boguet, Henri, 292
Boleyn, Ann, 322
Bonaventura, 217, 278
Book of the Dead, The, 34, 40
Books, condemnation of, 259
Bradlaugh, Charles, 345
Brahe, 310
Brain, development of, in man, 7
Breasted, 61
Brewster, Sir David, 330
Bridgewater Treatises, 341
Bronze, Sumerian use of, 68
Bruno, 310, 337
Buckland, William, 374
Buddhism, 437
Budge, 61
Buffon, 331, 337, 353
Bull, papal, history of, 281
Bulla, 166, 281
Burnet, John, 148
Burnet, Thomas, 331
Burton, 387
Busiris, 37
Butler, Bishop Joseph, 408, 421
Byblos, 12, 36, 58, 122
Byron, 346

CABANIS, 410
Caelestis, 122
Calendar, 23
Calvin, 430; and the heliocentric theory, 315
Cambyses, 14
Canaan, 90
Canaanites, 58ff.
Canopic jars, 26
Captivity, Babylonian, 91, 115f.
Carlile, Richard, 343
Carlyle, Thomas, 369
Carpenter, W. B., 368
Cartwright, 378
Cassels, W. R.: Supernatural Religion, 385
Catharists, 254
Catholic, use of word by Ignatius, 207
Cayley, Arthur, 407
Cecco d'Ascobi, 329
Celibacy, 262f.
Celsus, on Christianity, 203
Ceres, 167
Certitudes, 413ff., 428, 438
Chambers, Robert: Vestiges of Creation, 342
Chariot, Sumerian, 68
Charlemagne, 251
Charles I, 378
Chateaubriand, 335
Chemistry, condemned as heresy, 261
Chivalry, 427
'Chosen People,' prophetic vision of, 120f.
Christ, origin of name, 178; descent into hell, 266
Christian, martyrs, 210; development of dogma, 213; persecution of pagans, 223, 251
Christianity, origins of, 174ff.; earliest historic references to, 179; rejection by Jews, 198; and Mithraism, 199; and pagan parallels, 199; spread of, 202; schisms in, 207; and conflicts with paganism, 209; failure of monotheism in, 216; and return to idolatry, 217; and the Dark Ages, 227; and canonization of pagan gods, 227
Christians, refusal to worship Divus Caesar, 209; persecution by pagans, 210; and the Roman games, 211; persecution of Jews by, 253
Christology, 182ff., 189ff.
Chrysippus, 420
Chrysostom, 263, 427
Chubb, T., 384
Church, medieval Catholic, 316
Cicero, on religion, 168
Circumcision, in Egypt, 15; among Israelites, 97
Civilization, rudiments of, 15
Clement, alleged author of the Gospel of Luke, 196
Clifford, W. K., 403, 413; 'The Unseen Universe,' 386
Clisthenes, 151
Colenso, J. W., 385; The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua Critically Examined, 352
Coleridge, 346
Colosseum, 172
Communal life, 8
Comte, Auguste, 401
Concubitus daemonum, 278
Concupiscence, 250, 379
Condorcet: Outline of and Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind, 413
Confession, Negative, 43
Conrad of Marburg, 258
Consciousness, as a factor in behavior, 411. See also Mind
Constantine, 219, 337
Constantius, 223
Constellations, in Sumerian lore, 73
Copernicus, 309, 353, 416
Copper, discovery of, 16
Cosmology, medieval, 308, 328f.
Couchoud, 191ff.
Council of, Nicaea, 223, 225f.; Constantinople, 225f., 307; Chalcedon, 226; Ephesus, 226; Toulouse, 255f., 303; Florence, 267; Sens, 302; Soissons, 302; Nicaea, Second, 306; Constance, 319; Trent, 323
Cow of Heaven (Hathor), 38
Cowrie shell, magic power of, 16
Creation, in Sumerian lore, 72; Hebraic legend of, 116f.; Ussher's date of, 324; Babylonian legend of, 327; corruption of, by Adam's sin, 330
Crime, history of, 418
Cromwell, 378
Cronos, 134
Cross, magic power of, 199
Crucifixion, Paul's doctrine of the, 180; and resurrection, pagan parallels, 187. See also Resurrection
Crusades, origin of, 252ff.
Cudworth, Ralph: Intellectual System of the Universe, 400
Cursive script, 18
Cuvier, 335, 339ff., 374
Cybele, 122ff.,167, 214ff.
Cyrus, 71, 91, 119

DANAE, 183
Dante, 308, 317, 424, 428
Dark Ages, 254
Darwin, Charles, 432, 434, 438; On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection ...., 3, 356ff., 367ff., 435; Journal, 357; The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs: Being the First Part of the Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle, 362; Geological Observations in South America, 363; Volcanic Islands, 363; Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, 373
Darwin, Erasmus, 339ff., 354, 400
Dasius, 139
David, 91
Davison, Thomas, 343
Day of Judgment, 174, 178
Dead, land of the, Egyptian, 34; service of, in Egypt, 31ff.
Death, in Egyptian eschatology, 31; and resurrection. See also Resurrection
Decalogue, pre-exilic, 104
Deception, argument from, 316
Deification of Augustus, 170
Deism, 384, 399f.
Deities, Egyptian animal, 12
Deir Tasa, culture of, 11
Del Rio, 292
De Maillet, 337
Demeter, 122, 126, 140, 167, 216
Democritus, 144
Demonology, works on, 277
Denison, Archdeacon, 350f.
Descartes, 337, 353, 415f.
Deuteronomic code, 110f.
Deuteronomy, Book of, 109, 417
Devil (daevas), 128. See Satan
'Devil's mark,' 274
'Dialectic,' argument by, 241
Diana, 122, 167
Dik (justice), 151
Dike (goddess), 151
Diodorus, 136, 168
Dionysus the Areopagite, 307
Dionysus, 127, 134, 167
Dionysus-Bacchus, 126
Diophantus, 228
Divination, in Egypt, 22; in Mesopotamia, 74
Divine impregnation, in Egypt, 29; in classic traditions, 182f.
Divine Mother, 87
Divus Augustus, 170
Dog Star, 23
Dominican inquisitors, 257
Draper, J. W.: History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, 385; History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, 385
Dumuzi. See Tammuz, 84
Dung beetle, 19
Duns Scotus, 304
Drer, 435
Dynastic period, in Egypt, 12ff.
Dynasties, Manetho's, 14

EA, 71ff.
Earth, structure of, 331; true age of, 334
Easter, 201
Ecstasy, 131
Eden, 117; Garden of, 234; apocryphal story of, 245
Eginhard, 393
Egoism, 422f.
Egypt, 9; neolithic culture in, 13
Egyptian chests, 16
Egyptians, predynastic, 11
Eleusinian Mysteries, 126
Eliot, George, 385, 436
Ellis, Havelock, 422; Studies in the Psychology of Sex, 428
Elohim, 91
Emerson, 401, 436ff.; English Traits, 353
Empedocles, 163
Enezib, 31
Engidu, 78f.
Ennead, Egyptian, 37
Epicurus, 420
Episcopacy, financial advantages, 208, 220
Episcopal church, 378, 397; exaltation of power, 207
Erasistratus, 163
Erasmus, 94
Erech, 69, 80
Eridu, 68
Erigena, 301, 307
Esbat, 271
Essays and Reviews, 348, 350f., 375
Essence (Thomist), 304
Eternal punishment, Judicial council's decision against, 350
Ethics, 433
Eucharist, 290. See also Sacrament
Euclid, 143
Euphrates, 9, 64
Euripides, 127, 142
Eusebius, 135
Eve, 236
Everett, Edward, 406
Evil, epitomized in Set, 22, 35; blamed on Satan, 233; Augustine's theory of, 243
Evolution, forerunners of Charles Darwin, 339; Spencer's concept of, 355; Darwinian, 361; Wallace's concept of, 365; Lamarck's concept of, 366
Exile, Babylonian, 91
Exodus, from Egypt, 89, 95
Experimental method, in Greece, 163
Ezra, 92

FALL, THE, 234
Fathers of the church, five great, 303
Faust, legend of, 268
Fayum, culture of, 11
Fecundity, and cowrie shell, 16; Osiris as god of, 38ff. See also Adonis, Aphrodite, Attis, Cybele, Demeter, Dionysus, Genetyllis, Ishtar, Isis
Feudal Period, 33, 50
'Field of Offerings,' 30
'Field of Rushes,' 19, 30, 41
Fitz-Gerald, Edward, 387
Fitzroy, Captain, 358
Flade, Dietrich, 291
Flint axes, chipping of, 7
Flood, the, 68f., 76, 116; Babylonian legend of, 325
Flood, of Nile, 23
Forbidden fruit, sin of, 248
Fossils, medieval explanation of, 332
Fox, William Darwin, 357
France, Anatole, 272
Franklin, 295, 342, 401
'Free thought,' 343ff., 390
Free will, 238, 409
Funerary equipment, 12
Furniss, Father: Sight of Hell, 376

GABRIEL, ANGEL, 306
Gadarene swine, 392ff.
Galen, 228, 296
Galileo, 310, 329, 353, 415ff.
Ganymede, 141
Gassendi, 420
Geikie, Archibald, 368
Genetyllis, 122
Genius (Roman), 166
Genius Augustus, 170
Gentiles (Gentili), A., 420
Geocentric theory, 309
Geology, condemned as heresy, 334
Gerzean culture, 12
Gezer, monolithic monuments, 102
Gibbon, 189, 386, 396, 426
Gilgamesh, 77ff., 117, 325ff.
Gilukhipa, 54
Gladiatorial games, 172
Gladstone, 394, 403; The Impregnable Rock of Scripture, 394
Gnosticism, 213f., 269
God, Augustine's proof of, 241; definition of, antitheses in, 344
Gospel texts, early, 181; Couchoud's theory of, 192
Gospels, morality of, 186; contradictions in, 385
Graf, 267
Grain god (Osiris), 20, 38
Gratian, Code of, 257
Graves, earliest Egyptian, 11f.; early Sumerian, 76
Gray, Asa, 366f.
Great Mother cults, 85
Green, magic power of, 15, 30
Green, T. H., 421
Gregory, James, 407
Grew, Nehemiah: Cosmologica Sacra, or a Discourse on the Universe ...., 341
Griesbach, J. J., 385
Grotius, 420
Guti, 69

HABIRI TRIBES, 90
Habiru, 89
Hades, 140
Hamilton, Sir W. R., 407
Hammurabi, 67ff.
Hannibal, 125, 167
Harnack, 430
Harvey: Movement of the Heart and Blood, 372
Hathor, 12, 21, 31, 38, 98
Hatshepsut, 53
Hatti, 53, 63
Heart, weighing of the, 42
Heaven, Christian, 205
Hebe, 140
Hebraic Law, 111
Hebrew history, 91
Hebrews, 54
Hedonism, 420ff.
Heine, 405
Heliopolis, 21, 38
Hell, 265; Alberico's vision of, 266; Dante's description of, 266
Hennell, C. C., 190
Henry VIII, 322, 397
Henslow, Reverend J. S., 357
Hepzefa, 31
Hera, 140
Heraclitus, 143
Heraclius, 251
Herakles, 167, 182
Hercules, 167
Heresies of the nineteenth century, 347
Heresy, 215; growth of, 253ff.
Hermes, 134, 140, 167
Herodotus, 27, 63ff., 86
Herschel, Sir John, 369, 374; Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, 358
Hestia, 140
Hierodouloi, 123
Hieroglyphic writing, 17, 33
Hilbert, David, 406f.
Hinnom, Valley of, 106
Hippolytus, 127
Hittites, 53ff., 62, 69
Hobbes, 421; Leviathan, 420
d'Holbach; Histoire critique de Jesus Christ, 343
Holy Ghost, 184, 219, 226; (Logos), conflict over, 221, 225
Holyoake, G. J., 343ff., 412
Holy water, 200, 276
Homo sapiens, 5ff.
Homosexuality, 426
Hooker, Joseph, 363ff., 432
Horse, domesticated, 69
Horus, 19f., 34ff., 45; eye of, symbol of immortality, 37
Houston, George, 343
Howitt, William; Popular History of Priestcraft in all Ages and Nations, 346
Human sacrifice, 132ff.; at grave, in Egypt, 31; at grave, in Sumeria, 77; among early Israelites, 105; mitigation of, 137; in medieval witchcraft, 271
Humbaba, 80
Hume, 408ff., 416; 'Of Miracles,' 383; Treatise on Human Nature, 404
Huss, 319
Hutton, James, 338, 353, 360f., 374
Huxley, Thomas, 3, 368ff., 390ff., 411, 417ff., 438; Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, 372; 'On the Hypothesis that Animals Are Automata, and Its History,' 410
Hyksos, 53, 89
Hysteria, 126

IDEALISM, PLATONIC (REALISM), 157
Ideas, Platonic, 300
Ideographic writing, 17
Immortality, 436; Egyptian concern with, 15; of Pharaoh, 29; of Osiris, 38; Thomist argument for, 305
Incest, in Egypt, 29
Incubation, in Egypt, 23; in Mesopotamia, 74; in Israel, 101
Incubi, 274, 278
Indulgences, 256, 320; Luther's attack on, 321
Indus, 9
Infallibility, papal, 281
Inquisition, 255
Ionians, 141f.
Ipuwer, 50
Isaiah, 101
Ishtar, 69ff., 78ff., 118ff., 214. 425
Isidorean Decretals, 252, 257
Isis, 20, 30ff., 36, 216
Island of Philae, obelisk, 18
'Isles of the Blest,' 30
Isra-el (ruled by God), 90
Israel, Kingdom of, 91
'Israel stele,' 54, 90
Israelites, 89ff., 97; traditions of, 95; prophetic vision as 'Chosen People,' 118
Issy, 47
Ixion, 141

JACOB, 95
James I: Book of Sports, 377, 380
Janus, 166
Jefferson, 342, 401
Jehovah. See Yahweh
Jeremiah, 100
Jerome, 263
Jerusalem, 58, 91; rebuilding of, 119; destruction by Titus, 121; recapture by Christians, 253
Jesus, origin of name, 178, 193; earliest historical references to, 179; life, parallels in pagan legends, 181, 185; trial and crucifixion, 188; death and pagan mystery drama, 191; historicity of, 197; magic power of name, 199; birthdate, 201; miracles, 202
Jethro, 96
Jews, persecution by Christians, 253. See also Hebrew history, Israelites
Joan of Arc, 272
John, Apocalypse of, 193
John, Gospel of, 180, 196; and Logos, 219
John the Baptist, 189
John of Salisbury, 304
Joseph, 89, 95
Judah, 91
Judgment, Osirian, 42
Judgment Hall, Egyptian, 36
Jukes, J. B., 368
Julian, 224, 228
Juno, 141, 167
Jupiter, 166f.
Jus prima noctis, 124
Justice, Plato's search for, 154; in Plato's philosophy, 160
'Justification,' of Osiris, 38
Justin Martyr, 183
Justinian, 228

KANT, 406ff., 4I6; Critique of Pure Reason, 414
Karkhuf, 49
Karnak, 55f.
Kassites, 69
Keats, 346
Keb, 34
Keith, Sir Arthur, 372
Kennett, 106f.
Kepler, 310, 415ff.
Khabiri, 54ff., 62
Khafra, 27
Khaibut, 24
Khat, 24
Khati, 112
Khayym, Omar, 387
Khekkeperri-soneb, 50
Khenti, 39
Khenti-amenti, 39
Kheops, 16, 27
Khepra, 19, 26, 32, 41 Khufu (Kheops), 16, 27
King, immolation of, in Egypt, 28
King James Version of the Bible, 94
Kingdom, origin of, 31
Kingship, earliest evidences of, 12
Kingsley, Charles, 435ff.
Kingu, 73f., 230, 248, 296
Kish, 68, 77
Klein, C. F., 407
Knight, William, 399
Knox, 377f.
Kramer, Henry, 281, 291

LAMARCK, 341, 364, 374
Land, of the Dead, Egyptian, 39; of the Two Rivers (Mesopotamia), 67
Laplace, 330, 355, 410
lar, 166
Latona, 141
Lavoisier, 353
Law, Hebraic, 110, 175; Hebraic, postexilic development of, 119; 'law' (Democritus), 149; Mosaic and Jesus' teachings, 187; natural, 330, 415ff., 431; Newtonian, 330; juridical, 420
Leakey, 7
Lecky, W. E. H., 381; History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, 386; History of European Morals, 419
Leibnitz, 337
Leucippus, 144
Liber, 167
Libera, 167
Lightning rod, 295
Lilith, 278
Linnaeus, 337
Livy, on religion, 168
Lobachewsky, N. I., 407
Locke, John, 384, 408ff.; Essay on the Human Understanding, 404, 421
Logos, 144ff., 149, 218, 225f.
Lord's Day, Mithraic, 130
Love, in the Testaments, 423; among primitive peoples, 425; in Greece, 425
Lubbock, Sir John: Prehistoric Times, Origin of Civilization, 386
Lucian, 212, 228
Lucretius, 408; on religion, 168; De Rerum Natura, 169
Luke, Gospel of, 180, 184
Lullaby (Lili abi), 278
Luther, 293, 315, 319ff., 377, 430
Lycanthropy, 275
Lyell, Sir Charles, 334, 353, 360f., 367f., 374; Antiquity of Man, 374

MAAT, 46ff., 60, 151
Maat, goddess, 46ff.
Macaulay, 380
Mach, 416
Madison, 401
Madonna and child in Egyptian art, 21
Maffeik, Giovanni, 308
Magee, Bishop, 392f.
Magic, Egyptian, 15; medieval, 261
Malleus malificarum (Witches' Hammer), 281ff.
Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, 354, 362, 431
Man, evolution of, 5ff.; neolithic, 5; races of, 5ff.; creation of, Mesopotamian legend, 74
'Man's Place in Nature,' 3
Manetho, 14
Manichaeism, 221, 239, 254
Marcion, 194, 213
Marduk, 71ff., 230, 327
Mark, Gospel of, 180, 195
Martineau, Reverend James, 402, 412; The Seat of Authority of Religion, 398f.
Mary, apotheosis of, 216; immaculate conception of, 216; Virgin, and Satan, 268
Mary, Catholic, 378
Mary of Scotland, 377
Mass, Christian, 201
Massebah, 101
Mastaba, 26
Materialism, 390, 403
Mathematics, condemned as heresy, 261; nature of, 405f.
Matthew, Gospel of, 180, 195
Maurice, Reverend J. F. D., 435
Mazdaism, 128
Mechanism, 403
Medes, 71
Mediterranean, Pleistocene limits of, 9
Memphis, 14, 19, 28, 37
Memphite drama, 28, 36, 45
Mendes, 20
Menelaus, 141
Mentuhotep, 31
Mercurius, 167
Merena, 28
Meridere, Instruction addressed to, 50f.
Merimde, culture of, 11
Merneptah, 54, 90
Mesopotamia, 64
Messiah, in Jewish speculation, 175ff.; Paul's doctrine of, 178
Messianic doctrine, postexilic growth of, 121
Michael, angel, 306
Middle Kingdom, 14, 32
Middleton, Conyers: Free Inquiry, 383
Midian, land of, 96
Miletus, 143
Mill, 433
Mind, 404, 408ff., 412f.
Minerva, 167
Minos, 137
Minotaur, 137
Miracles, criticism of, 383
Mitanni, 53ff.
Mithra, 128f.; Julian's preference for, 224
Mivart, St. George, 316
Moloch, 106
Monogamy, 427; in Greece, 151
Monotheism, of Akhnaten, 59; development among Israelites, 107; final etherealization of, 115
Monroe, 401
Montaigne, 291
Moon god (Sin), 76
Morality, supernatural virtue of, in Egypt, 45; relativity of, 108
Moral laws, Kant's theory of, 415
Morals, history of, 417ff.; nature of, 423
Morgan, Thomas, 384
Morgan, Pierre de, 407
Moses, 89, 95f.
Mosque of Omar, 103
Mother goddesses, neolithic images of, 85
Mother of All Living, 87
Mummification, 25f.
Mummu, 72f.
Murchison, Sir R. I., 374
Murray, 270ff.
Mutamuya, 53

'NAME,' MAGIC POWER OF, 276
Napishtim, 78
Narmer, 29
Natural Law, 356; philosophy, condemned as heresy, 260; theology, 340
Naturalism, 391, 403, 414
'Natural selection' (Darwinian), 363, 412, 433
Nebo, 70
Nebseni, papyrus of, 43
Nebuchadrezzar, 115
Nedyt, 36
Neferneferuaten, 57
Negative Confession, 43ff.
Neolithic Age, 6; images of pregnant women, 85
Nephthys, 20, 34ff.
Neoplatonism, 164, 239, 298, 420
Neptunus, 167
Nerfertiti, 55ff.
Nero, 121
Netheism, 391; Bradlaugh's definition of, 345
Nether world, Egyptian, 34
New Empire, 14, 53
New Kingdom, 14
Newman, Cardinal J. H., 396, 398: Tracts for the Times, 397
New Stone Age, 5
New Testament, oldest surviving manuscripts of, 180; 'minimalist interpretation,' 190; higher criticism, 383
Newton, 329, 353, 415ff.
Nietzsche, 318, 417
Nile River, 9ff., 15; flood, 10, 23; White, 10; Valley, 12ff.; supernatural origin of flood, 35
Nineveh, 70f.
Noah, Babylonian, 77
Nomes, political divinities of, 18
'Nominalism,' 301
Nous (shaping spirit), 149
Nu (scribe), 49
Nuiut, 30
Numina, 166
Nut (sky god), 34f.
Nymphia, 122

OLD KINGDOM, 14, 50; beliefs of, 28; end of, 50
Old Stone Age, 5
Old Testament, 91f.; fragments of, from Dead Sea, 93; manuscripts, 94; postexilic editing, 119; legends, Babylonian influence on, 116; prophecy, and Jesus's life, 184ff.
Origin of Species, The. See Darwin
Original sin, 307
Ormazd (Ahura-Mazdah), 128f., 231
Orphic Mysteries, 126f., 142
Osirian, theology, 34; judgment, 42
Osiris, 19ff., 26, 30ff., 36, 134; tombs of, 16; death and resurrection of, 36f.; Horus prepares the mummy, 37; expulsion of Ra from Egyptian theology, 38; 'justification' of, 38; trial of, 38
Owen, Sir Richard, 369
Owen, Robert, 346, 401

PAINE, THOMAS, 342; Age of Reason, 344, 350, 417
Paleolithic Age, 5f.; man, 17
Palestine, 90
Paley, Archdeacon: Natural Theology, 341
Pamylia, feast of, 37
Papacy, claim to authority on Petrine text, 252; growth of power, 252
Paradise, 117, 244f.
Paterson, Thomas, 343
Paul of Tarsus, 178, 193, 402
Pausanias, 136f.
Peacock, George, 406f.
Pederasty, 426
Pelagio, 178
Pelagius, 237
Pelops, 141
Pentateuch, 92
Pepi I, 28; -- II, 28
Pericles, 152
Persephone, 125f., 141, 167
Peter of Abano, 329
Petra, 102
Phallic symbolism, Osiris, 37, 40; Ishtar, 82; Cybele, 125; Dionysian, 127; and worship in witchcraft, 270
Phallic-megalithic metaphors, in Old Testament, 103
Pharaoh, as supernatural being, 28
Philae, 40
Philip of Spain, 377
Philo, 106
Philo, Jewish philosopher, 164, 218
Phlegyas, 141
Physicalism, 403
Physics, condemned as heresy, 261
Physiologoi, 143ff., 156, 163
Pictographic writing, 17
Pictures, paleolithic, 17
Plato, 150ff., 164, 419f.; dialogues, 148; Republic, 159
Platonic Realism (idealism), 157; universals, 158
Pleistocene Period, 5ff.
Pliny, 136
Pliocene, 6
Plotinus, 299, 420
Plutarch, 136, 265; De Iside et Osiride, 34; on Osiris, 197
Pluto, 141f.
Polybius, on religion, 167
Polytheism, Egyptian, 18
Pompey, 120
'Pope,' origin of word from Mithraism, 130
Pope, Gregory the Great, 228, 253; Alexander III, 255, 260; Innocent III, 255; Siricius, 263; Urban V, 276; John XIII, 277; Alexander IV, 279; Gregory IX, 279f.; Benedict XII, 280; Gregory XI, 280; John XXII, 280; Nicholas V, 280; Sixtus IV, 280; Innocent VIII, 281f., 291; Boniface VIII, 284; Innocent IV, 286; Leo XIII, 303; Paul V, 312; Urban VIII, 313; Clement IV, 319; Clement VII, 319; Urban II, 320; Leo X, 321
Porphyry, 136f.
Poseidon, 140ff., 167
Positivism, 401f.
Postulates, mathematical, 406
Predestination, doctrine of, 250, 322
Presbyterian church, 378
'Prince of the Power of the Air.' See Satan
Progress, 356, 429, 433ff.
Prophecy, Hebrew, 111
Prophets, of Israel, 109
Protagoras, 145
Protestantism, origin of, 321; fracture of, 323
Proto-Elamites, 68
Ptah, 19f., 30, 45
Ptahhotep, 112; instruction of, 47ff.
Ptolemy, 228, 309
Punishment, history of, 418
Puritanism, 377ff.
Puritans, 293, 417
Pusey, Dr., 350
Pyramid, Age, 28ff.; Texts, 29f., 36
Pyramids, of Cairo, 27; of Gizeh, 27; of Sakkara, 28
Pythagoras, 142, 155f., 163

QUINTUS CURTIUS, 135

RA, 12, 19, 28ff., 56ff.
Railroads, effect on intellectual climate, 381
Rais, Gilles de, 272
Rameses II, 90
Ramessids, 14
Ramsay, Sir Andrew, 368
Raphael, angel, 306
Rationalism, 398; Greek, 140; eighteenth century reaction against, 342
Ray, John: The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of Creation, 341
Raymond, Count of Toulouse, 256
Realism, Platonic, 300
Red, magic power of, 15, 30
Reformation, 318ff., 385
Remy, Nicholas, 292
Ren, 24
Renan, 190
Reinach, 191
Resurrection, of the Egyptian mummy, 25ff.; of Osiris, 37ff., 132; Osiris as god of, 40; of Tammuz, 84, 132; of Adonis, 122ff., 132; of Attis, 124; of Dionysus, 128; of Mithra, 130, 132; pagan parallels, 132, 187; of Herakles, 182; of Jesus, 187ff.
Revised Version of Bible, 95
Riemann, G. F. B., 407
Righteousness, Egyptian emphasis on, 1; supernatural power of, 46; Amos's emphasis on, 112ff.; Samuel's emphasis on, 113
Rim-Sin, 89
Robertson, 134, 191, 343, 414
Roman, deities, 166; games, 172
Rome, fall of, 251
Roscellinus, 301, 318
Rosetta stone, 18
Rosetti, D. G., 387
Rubiyt of Omar Khayym, The, 387
Rushes, Horus concealed in, 36; Sargon concealed in, 69; Moses concealed in, 96
Russell, Bertrand, 407
Ruysbroek, 299

SABBAT, 271ff.
Sabbatarianism, 377
Sacaea, festival of the, 135
Sacrament, Attisian, 125; Mithraic, 130; Dionysian, 132; Christian, 200
Sacrifices, substitute, 33
Sahara Desert, in paleolithic times, 10
St. Honorat, Island of, 296
Sakkara pyramids, 28, 34
Salem, 294
Saluki (hunting dog), 21
Samaria, 91
Samuel, on righteousness, 113
Sandys, 378
Sargon, 69, 76
Satan, anticipation of Christianity by, 199; in Manichaeism, 221; origin of, 230ff.; appearance in Book of Job, 232; appearance in Zechariah, 232; and Jesus, 233; as serpent in Paradise, 247, 250; powers of, 258; wiles and achievements of, 261; appearance at the Sabbat, 273; covenant with, 274; and the storm, 275; exorcism of, 276; and the lightning rod, 296
Saturnalia, 138
Saul, 91
Sayce, 96
Scarab, 19, 21, 26, 32
Scholasticism, 298ff.; decay of, 319
Science condemnation by Church, 261
Scott, Reginald, 269, 291
Scott, Sir Walter, 424
Scythians, 71
Secret names, magic power of, 20
Secularism, 390
'Secularist,' as used by Holyoake, 345
Sed festival, 29, 39, 134
Sedgwick, Adam, 360, 369, 374
Semites, 88
Semti, 31
Seneca, on religion, 169
Septuagint, 93f.
Sepulcher of Osiris, 39
Serabit, 99
Serapis, 21
Serpent of Eden, 117, 245ff., 250
Servetus, 331
Set, 'Lord of Slaughter,' 20f., 34ff.; and Horus, the contendings of, 35ff.; murders Osiris, 36
Seti I, 90
Seven Tablets of Creation, 72ff.
Severinus, 331
Sexual intercourse, Augustine's attitude, 249
Shabaka, 45
Shaman, Egyptian, 22
Shamash, 71, 78
Shaw, G. B., 374
Shelley, 346
Shepherd Kings, 89
Shorter, 61
Sibylline Books, 125, 167
Sin (moon god), 71ff., 76, 99
Sin, 234; and Jesus's teachings, 236; and Paul's teachings, 236; Augustinian doctrine of, 250; and Puritanism, 379
Sinai, Mount, 99; Peninsula, 15
Sins, forgiveness of, 320
Sirius, 23
Sisyphus, 141
Slavery, in Mesopotamia, 66; in Greece, 151
Smith, Elliott, 61
Smith, William, 335, 353
Socrates, 145, 419; and the immortal soul, 148; trial of, 152
Solomon, 91, 102
Son of man, a, in Daniel, 176; the, in the Book of Enoch, 176
Sophia, 214
Sophocles, 142
Soter, 214
Sothic year, 24, 34
Sothis (Sirius), the Dog Star, 23
Soul, immortal, 435f.; Socratic origin of, 148
Southwell, Charles, 343
Spanish Inquisition, 258
Species, definition of, 6; transmutation of, 336ff., 361
Spells, magic, in the Book of the Dead, 41
Spencer, Herbert, 344, 354ff., 363, 389, 402, 419, 421, 428ff., 433; Principles of Psychology, 355; Progress, Its Law and Cause, 355, 431; Synthetic Philosophy, 355; Principles of Ethics, 422
Sphinx, 27
Spinoza, 416
Spontaneous generation, 337
Sprenger, James, 281, 291
Stedinger, 257
Stoics, 419
Stone worship, among Israelites, 101
Strabo, 135; on religion, 168
Strato, 163
Strauss, D. F., 190; Leben Jesu, 384f.
Striga, 278
'Struggle for existence' (Spencerian), 363
Suarez, 337
Succubi, 274, 278
Suffering Servant, prophetic vision of, 118
Sufism, 388
Sukenik, 93
Sumer, 65ff.
Sumerian gods, 71
Summers, Reverend Montague, 269
Summis desiderantes affectibus, 281f.
Sun god, 19, 30
Sunday, religious observance of, 376ff.
'Survival of the fittest' (Spencerian), 363, 433
Susa, 68
Swinburne, 387, 437
Syria, 64

'TABLET OF DESTINIES,' 73f.
'Tablet of offerings,' 33
Tacitus, 173
Tammuz, 84
Tanner, Adam, 291
Tantalus, 141
Tasa. See Deir Tasa
Taylor, A. E.: 'The Problem of Conduct,' 422
Taylor, Robert: Diegesis; The Devil's Pulpit, 343
Tell al-Ubad, 68
Tell el-Amarna, 57ff.; letters, 90, 117
Temple, in Jerusalem, 102; destruction of the First, 114; destruction of the Second, 121
Temu, 19
Ten Tribes, lost, 91
Tennyson, 429f.; "In Memoriam," 436
Tertullian, 136, 227, 263, 275, 297, 306, 332, 427
Teta, 28
Thales, 143
Thamos, 18
Thebes, 9ff., 54ff.; tombs of, 28
Theism, 400f.
Themis, 140
Themistocles, 151
Theodosius the Great, 225ff., 251
Theology, Natural, 433
Theophilus, Bishop, 164
Theseus, 137
Thirlwall, Bishop, 351
Thirty Nine Articles, 323
This, 39
Thomas Cantipratensis, 278
Thompson, 270
Thoreau, 414
Thoth, 13ff., 20, 34ff., 40ff.
Thothmes I, 53; -- II, 53; -- III, 53ff.; -- IV, 53
Thucydides, 415
Tiamat, 72f., 327
Tigris, 9, 64
Tiresias, 141
Titus, 121
Tityus, 141
Tiy, 54f.
Toland, John, 384
Tomb, provisioning of the Egyptian, 25, 31
Tombs of Thebes, 28
Torah, 92
Torture, use of, in Inquisition, 258; in witchcraft trials, 285; methods of, 286
Tower of Babel, 118
Toynbee, 190f.
'Tree of Knowledge,' 117, 245
'Tree of Life,' 30, 77, 83, 117, 245
Trees, sacred, 97
Trinity, controversy over, 221ff.
Tristram, Canon, 374
Truth, 403, 413ff.; identified with Ra, 19
Tryphon, 183
Tuat, 34ff.
Tunip, 58
Tutankhaten, 62f.
Twin spirit, 16, 24
Tylor: Primitive Culture, 386, 419; Researches into the Early History of Mankind, 386
Tyndall, John, 408; 'Belfast Address,' 403; 'Scientific Materialism,' 411

UMBILICAL CORD, KING'S, 16
Unas, 28
Underworld, Egyptian, 34; Sumerian, 77; Greek, 141; Roman, 169; Hebrew, 205
Unitarians, persecution of, 375
Ur, 65ff., 76
Uraeus, 97
Urania, 122
Uriel, angel, 306
Urus, 80ff.
Userkaf, 46
Ushabti statuettes, 12, 33, 39
Ussher, Archbishop James, 324
Uta-Napishtim, 83, 325ff.

VARRO, ON RELIGION, 168
Venus, 122, 167, 425ff.
Vespasian, 121
Vesta, 166
Vico: Principles of a New Science, 431
Vinci, da, 332
Virgin birth, parallels in pagan legends, 182; Jesus's, 195. See also Divine Impregnation
Voltaire, 342, 401
Von Baer, K. E., 353
Von Humboldt: Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America During the Years I799-I804, 358
Von Spee, Friedrich, 291

WACE, DR. HENRY, 392f.
Wallace, A. R., 373, 433; On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species, 365
Warlocks. See Witches
Washington, 342, 401
Weier, Johann, 278, 291ff.
Werner, A. G., 333, 353
Wesley, 294
Westbury, Baron Richard, 351
Westminster Confession, 323f., 380
Whewell, William, 369
White, magic power of, 16
Wilberforce, Bishop, 349, 353, 369f.
William of Ockham, 318
Williams, Reverend Rolland, 348, 350
Wilson, James, 401
Wilson, Reverend H. B., 348, 350
Winspear, 150
Witchcraft, 260; neolithic survivals in, 270; and human sacrifice, 27I; protection against, 276; Inquisition against, 279; trial for, 284; punishment for, 289; logic in persecution of, 291; skeptics who repudiated, 291; attitude of Protestants, 293; in Scotland, 293; and toll of human suffering, 293; in New England, 294; Aquinas's attitude on, 308
Witchcraft trials, secret procedures in, 284; use of torture in, 285
Witches, 269; protection by Satan, 285
Witches' Hammer, 281
Whler, F., 353
Woolley, 89
'Word,' in Christian theology, 217, 302
Wright, Susanna, 343
Writing, invention of, 17
Written word, magic power of, 17, 31
Wycliffe, 319

YAHUDA, 96
Yahweh, 91ff., 98, 174, 214, 218ff., 231, 327
Young, Thomas, 18

ZENO, 419
Zer, 31, 39
Zet, 31
Zeus, 134, 140ff.; and Dana, 183
Ziggurat, 66
Zoganes, 135
Zoroaster, 129
Zoroastrianism, 128f.

Graphic RuleGraphic Rule 75Graphic Rule